What's The Best Dog Food for Shelties?
An in-depth review of the best dog food for Shelties, including the best and worst dry dog food ingredients, healthy kibbles, toxic foods, and oral health.
Feeding your Sheltie can be as simple as grabbing the cheapest bag of kibble from the supermarket. However, cheap kibbles rely too heavily on grains—and not the high protein meat that dogs thrive on. There are also toxicity concerns with the chemicals and the source of meat used in many popular brands.
This article explores how kibble is produced and how you can tell if the dog food you feed your Sheltie is sufficient to meet her nutritional needs. We'll also look at a fresh food diet, and what fresh foods are dangerous to dogs.
The Scale of Dry Dog Food
Dry kibble may look and smell the same to us humans, but looks can be deceiving. In fact, the scale of dog food is broad, and price is a valuable indicator of what you're actually feeding your Sheltie.
Despite the glossy branding, many cheap and mid-range kibble brands use corn, soy, and meat by-products as the bulk ingredients, which leave your Sheltie undernourished. This can lead to all kinds of skin, bone, joint, and heart problems as she ages. As a rule of thumb: if the first item in the ingredients list is corn or meat and bone meal, this is a red flag.
In contrast, premium kibble brands contain good quality meat, which allows the manufacturer to specify beef, lamb, or poultry meal as the primary ingredient. This is supplemented with essential vitamins and minerals like Omega-3 fatty acids which have many beneficial roles in the body, from the immune system to heart function.
Let's dive into the details with a breakdown of the best and worst ingredients in dog food. Broadly speaking, we want to consider two aspects:
The Source of Meat. It's no secret that cheap kibble contains some dubious sources of meat. Sickeningly, these sources include diseased farm animals, euthanized pets, and road kill. Dog food manufacturers can also legally use any kind of slaughterhouse by-product, including animals treated with hormones and other drugs not destroyed by the cooking process.
The Meat vs Grain Ratio. In recent decades, some major dog food manufacturers have turned to using grain as the main ingredient, leaving high protein meat as an afterthought. Your Sheltie's ancestors evolved eating raw meat and bones, with a little vegetation from the belly of their prey, and we should try to replicate this diet where possible. A high-grain diet is woefully inadequate.
6 Bad Dog Food Ingredients
Here are six specific ingredients to avoid, especially when they appear near the top of the ingredients list, which signifies the highest proportion. This applies to dog kibble as well as dental chews and treats.
AVOID: Meat and Bone Meal
This is a generic term for ground up meat and bones from a number of animal species, including diseased livestock, euthanized pets, and road kill. Where animals were treated with antibiotics or steroids before they died, those become part of the dog food too.
AVOID: Meat By-Products
This refers to slaughterhouse material not deemed fit for human consumption: intestines, heads, feet, hides, and bones. As this includes diseased and contaminated meat, all meat by-products go through an intensive cooking process which destroys the nutrients and proteins.
AVOID: Poultry By-Product Meal
This is the same deal, except with poultry. Poultry by-products—such as bills, feathers, necks, feet, eggs, and intestines—contain little meat, and once again can include diseased and contaminated materials as well as harmful chemical additives.
AVOID: Propylene Glycol
This is a synthetic preservative which is proven to cause red blood cell damage in cats. There is insufficient data to determine if it's also toxic to dogs, but I err on the side of caution, especially when it's a component of their daily diet.
This is another chemical additive, listed as a pesticide by the Department of Agriculture. It's an illegal additive in human food because of proven links to cancer of the kidneys, bladder, and stomach. Any kibble containing fish meal contains some ethoxyquin that's present in the food chain.
AVOID: BHA & BHT
While banned in most European countries, these artificial additives are still legal in the US. BHA and BHT are known to cause liver and kidney dysfunction, as well as bladder and stomach cancers. The cumulative toxicity from daily consumption is a real concern.
4 Good Dog Food Ingredients
What do we want to see at the top of the ingredients list? Here are four ingredients to look for:
SEEK: Beef, Lamb, or Poultry Meal
When the type of animal meat is specified, you know it's coming from a reliable source. Don't be afraid of the term meal having seen it in the last list: meal just means ground-up. Quality dog food contains at least one type of meat or poultry meal as the main ingredient.
SEEK: Omega-3, Taurine, and Flaxseed Oil
Taurine helps prevent blindness and heart disease, while flaxseed oil improves the skin and coat, and protects against degenerative diseases and illness. Omega-3 is an essential fatty acid that reduces inflammation and promotes healthy skin.
SEEK: Vitamin E, Vitamin C and Tocopherols
These are natural preservatives which help retain the fat in dry dog food. They're the preferred alternatives to ethoxyquin mentioned earlier.
SEEK: Trace Minerals in Chelated Form
Chelation is a process that converts trace minerals into a form that's more effectively absorbed in the intestinal tract and bloodstream. Chelated minerals are the ideal form to properly nourish your dog.
It's never too late to improve the quality of your Sheltie's diet. If you're feeling overwhelmed, we feed our Shelties Hill's Science Diet which is designed for dogs with sensitive stomachs while targeting optimal nutrient absorption. It's also the number one dog food recommended by vets.
Feeding Fresh Dog Food
Some people choose to feed their dogs an entirely fresh food diet because the nutrients are more readily absorbed. What's more, chewing on raw bones, along with the bacteria and enzymes present, can improve oral health. Raw food proponents also say their dogs have shinier coats, healthier skin, and more energy.
A fresh food diet may be particularly beneficial for dogs with allergies, weight issues, and digestive problems related to processed kibble. However, there are some caveats. Vets point out that the bacteria in raw dog food pose an added risk to young children and people with compromised immunity. Always take meticulous care when preparing raw meat and bones to avoid contamination. What's more, young puppies and dogs suffering from serious health issues may not be able tolerate the bacteria in raw foods.
If you do decide to try a raw dog food diet, get a supply of raw meaty bones from the butcher and freeze what you don't plan to use in the next few days. Bones are cheap, great for cleaning your dog's teeth, and great for mental stimulation. The bones and muscle meat that remains attached provide a number of essential nutrients, as well as good quality protein. As a general rule, offer your Sheltie about 20% of her body weight in raw meaty bones per week.
For example, a Sheltie that weighs 20lbs (9kg) should eat 4lbs (1.8kg) of meaty bones per week, which is about 9oz (255g) per day. Adjust this up or down depending on her age and activity level, as younger dogs can eat more and burn it off during exercise. Add a small amount of table scraps and treats, including organ meat, muscle meat, dog-safe fresh fruits and vegetables, and a limited amount of dairy.
30 Foods That Are Toxic to Dogs
Even common foods like grapes, onions, tomatoes, and avocados can be toxic to dogs, causing anything from stomach upset to death. Make a note or print out these 30 common foods and avoid feeding them as scraps or as part of a raw food diet.
Taking Care of Your Dog's Teeth
Look after your dog's oral health, especially if you feed dry dog food which can stick in small spaces between the teeth. In doing so, you'll spare him the pain of cavities and surgical tooth extractions down the line. Here are the best three ways to care for your Sheltie's teeth:
1. Brush You Dog's Teeth
Use a toothpaste designed for dogs such as Vet's Best Enzymatic Toothpaste which comes with a dog toothbrush. Made by vets, it contains aloe, neem oil, grapefruit seed extract, baking soda, and enzymes.
2. Offer Dental chews
Chewing tough food mechanically loosens tartar while stimulating saliva for better oral health. Virbac Oral Hygiene Chews contain enzymes for antiseptic action and have an abrasive texture for working debris off the teeth.
3. Use Liquid Plaque Remover
TropiClean Fresh Breath Plaque Remover contains natural ingredients that help fight plaque, tartar, and bad breath. It stays in the saliva and is safe to drink.
Whether you feed your Sheltie a premium dry kibble, or raw meaty bones, the best dog food is one that's been well-considered by his owner. So thank you for taking the time to explore the world of dog nutrition. Remember, fresh water is an essential for any diet, so make sure your dog has a clean source of water at all times.